How to improve the physical fitness of young people


"sensitive education period" of physical fitness

In recent years, relevant research at home and abroad has confirmed that during the adolescence, all the qualities of the body have a period of rapid development, which is called “sensitive development period”. If this period is over, the development is deeply affected and even delayed. .

The sensitive development period of speed quality is 10-12 years old; the explosive force is 12-13 years old; the strength is 13 years old-17 years old; the endurance quality is 10 years old, 13 years old and 16 years old; coordination, sensitivity and flexibility Sexuality is 10-12 years old; reaction speed and imitative ability are all in 9-12 years old; jumping endurance growth period is -10 years old for boys and 8-11 years for boys; and the strength of back muscles and leg muscles is 9- 10 years old, boys 9-12 years old and 14-17 years old, the arm muscles grow slowly to 15 years old; moderate strength work endurance, boys are 8-10 years old, girls are earlier; body formation (refers to height) The fastest growing period of the limbs, shoulder width, and boys is 11, 13 and 17 years old. Girls start from the age of 11 and have a climax every two years.

Therefore, it is crucial to improve the physical fitness of young people in a timely manner in primary and secondary schools, especially in primary schools.


   Ways to improve physical fitness

In daily life , the quality of physical fitness is manifested in various forms of activity. Such as the speed of walking, running, the size of the throwing force, the duration of the activity, the magnitude of the joint activity and the speed of the action.

Even if the average person does not exercise, the physical quality has a process of “natural growth”, but this is very limited. In order to improve physical fitness, it is necessary to exercise physical exertion frequently, so that various tissues and systems of the body are stimulated to a certain extent.

Physical fitness is closely related to the function of body shape, structure and physiological changes. The higher the quality, the more sensitive it is in daily work, study and life, the more subjective action can be exerted.


It is necessary to grasp the sensitive developmental stages of children's physical fitness and exercise their children in a planned and early manner. In the primary school, children's nervous system develops rapidly. The systems related to audio-visual development are faster and more malleable. They are suitable for developmental balance, coordination, response, sensitivity and flexibility. These qualities should be fully trained in kindergarten and primary school. The method is to let the children participate in various games and various sports activities such as gymnastics, ice skating, swimming, sprinting, jumping, throwing, ball and children's broadcast gymnastics to improve the flexibility of movement and judgment and understanding. During this period, children are in a slow growth stage, and their joints, ligaments, skeletal system, and muscle system are not yet mature. Therefore, strength training is to bear the weight and light load. The focus should be on flexibility and sensitivity. Several aspects of motion coordination.

In the adolescence, in addition to further strengthening the exercise of sensitive and speedy items, we should also pay attention to the exercise of muscle strength. At the beginning, we can use light load to overcome our own weight, focus on the coordination of explosive force and movement, such as doing pull-ups and bending arms. Overhang, vertical jump, side jump, dumbbells and throws. As height growth slows, you can gradually increase your load to increase muscle strength.

Endurance quality loves the constraints of cardiovascular, respiratory, and nervous system development. In terms of vital capacity, men are 10-11 years old and women 8-9 years old only reach half of the highest level. After puberty starts to improve faster, 16-17 years old can reach the highest level, but the cardiopulmonary system develops to be healthy compared to other systems. Late, 30 years old can be shaped. Therefore, during the adolescence, we must pay attention to the protection of the cardiopulmonary system. The amount and intensity of exercise should not be too large to prevent accidents such as suffocation, shock, collapse, and sudden death. If you need a large amount of exercise training, you must implement it under the medical supervision with better conditions.


In the middle of youth, on the basis of comprehensive exercise, aerobic endurance exercise, such as walking, middle and long distance jogging, skipping, swimming, skating, jumping stairs, etc., should be carried out for a long time. Pulse arrest should be kept below 160 beats/min. From the perspective of exercise physiology, this activity can fully relax and contract the heart, reduce congestion, facilitate the development of the cardiovascular system and lung tissue, and promote the body's metabolism.

In the later stages of puberty, according to the ability, the degree of exercise can be appropriately increased to improve strength and endurance, promote muscle development, improve the function of internal organs, and lay a solid foundation for a good life. The project includes fast running, endurance running, obstacle running, high jump, long jump and throwing grenades, javelin, discus, various balls and lifting dumbbells, swimming, climbing, off-road, various balls, etc., and can also participate in military sports activities.


Logic 1 differs from women in development and body type. Women's physical fitness develops earlier than men, but their quality is lower than that of men. After the age of 18, the difference will be bigger and bigger, so women should pay close attention to the "golden" timing. After entering puberty, they should pay more attention to physical exercise and make the body more fit. In addition, the quality of people is quite different. Therefore, teenagers should plan their physical exercise according to the specific conditions of their bodies.

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